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How To Build A Home Gym And Costs

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How To Build A Home Gym And Costs

I was very fortunate to have fulfilled many a powerlifter’s dream of having their own home gym, and the fact is budget wise, it is very doable. I was lucky to have a bunch of my clients chip in and buy be a power rack as a moving gift, but even if not, a home gym is still an option even on a budget. I know for a long time I had these grand aspirations of having an ER competition squat/bench combo rack, calibrated plates, and all the latest and greatest equipment, but I can honestly say after putting this all together, I have everything I need. If you have a large sum of discretionary spending available, by all means buy the equipment you want, but for budget purposes, I will say I do not feel like I am missing out with the current equipment I have, and am extremely happy with the setup.

With that being said, I have had numerous people ask me about my setup and the costs, so to make this easy, I figured it’d be a good time to put a post together in regards to building a home gym. Below is a spreadsheet with 3 sections; Needed, Recommended, and Other Additions. These are all things I currently have, but also understand that some things need to be prioritized. “Needed” means you are going to have a tough time putting together a program and lifting without that equipment, “Recommended” means you can survive without it, but I’ve found it to be very beneficial, and “Other Additions” entails that you can get away with not having it, but they are cool pieces of equipment if you have the budget for them. General prices are included for each item, but this does not include tax or shipping. With gym equipment, be aware that shipping makes up a large portion of the cost. Also, make sure to keep reading on below for notes on the “Whys” for equipment choice and what I recommend, and where I also touch on how to save on shipping costs.  

Needed Equipment:
Equipment Type Cost Links
Power Rack $600-$700 http://texasstrengthsystems.com/products/racks-stands/25×25-power-rack
    http://www.roguefitness.com/rogue-r-3-power-rack
Ohio Power Bar $275 http://www.roguefitness.com/rogue-ohio-power-bar
Plates $500-$600 https://www.walmart.com/ip/Cap-Barbell-OP-010/19226050
    https://www.walmart.com/ip/CAP-Barbell-2.5-lb-Olympic-Plate-Gray/19226048
Bar Collars $40-$50 http://www.roguefitness.com/oso-barbell-collars
Platform $250-$300 http://www.tractorsupply.com/tsc/product/rubber-mat-black-4-ft-x-6-ft
    https://www.menards.com/main/building-materials/panel-products/construction-panels/sheathing/plywood-sheathing/4-x-8-cdx-plywood-sheathing/p-1444431334153-c-13331.htm?tid=5287733158250827736
Weight Tree $50 https://www.amazon.com/CAP-Barbell-Olympic-2-Inch-Plate/dp/B0013SZC8S/ref=sr_1_2?s=exercise-and-fitness&ie=UTF8&qid=1487866178&sr=1-2&keywords=weight+tree
Bench $175 http://www.roguefitness.com/rogue-flat-utility-bench
Deadlift Jack $65-$165 http://www.roguefitness.com/mini-deadlift-bar-jack
    http://www.roguefitness.com/bar-jack
Recommended:
Equipment Type Cost Links
Loadable Dumbbell Handles $30 https://www.walmart.com/ip/CAP-Barbell-20-Olympic-Dumbbell-Handle-with-Collars/17363031
Extra Sets of Bar Collars $40-$80 http://www.roguefitness.com/rogue-proloc-collars
Strength Bands $15-$80 http://www.roguefitness.com/rogue-monster-bands
Other Additions:
Equipment Type Cost Links
Safety Squat Bar $395 http://www.roguefitness.com/sb-1-rogue-safety-squat-bar
Buffalo Bar $200 https://www.amazon.com/Buffalo-Bow-Bar-Long-NYB/dp/B000RZSKJG/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1487866741&sr=8-1&keywords=buffalo+bar
Bulgarian Split Squat Stand $170 http://www.performbetter.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/Product2_10151_10751_2215987_-1_2018515_1000239_1000239_ProductDisplayErrorView
Glute Ham Raise $300-$700 http://www.roguefitness.com/rogue-abram-ghd
    https://www.amazon.com/TDS-Glute-Ham-String-Machine/dp/B000QJAKV4
Rings $72 http://www.roguefitness.com/rogue-wood-rings
Farmer’s Walk Handles $185 http://www.roguefitness.com/rogue-farmers-walk-handles
Sled $115-$265 http://www.roguefitness.com/rogue-sleds
    http://www.roguefitness.com/dog-sled
    http://www.roguefitness.com/rogue-butcher
Roman Chair/Dip/Pullup Station $100 http://www.academy.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/Product_10151_10051_928965_-1?gclid=CjwKEAiArbrFBRDL4Oiz97GP2nISJAAmJMFadv-facjv_GlyPkOhKxp1djXFRsfVD5ztxKV_hWWFFhoCiS3w_wcB&kwid=productads-adid%5E168926669740-device%5Ec-plaid%5E105930398238-sku%5E024780827-adType%5EPLA
    www.walmart.com/ip/11993395?wmlspartner=wlpa&selectedSellerId=0&adid=22222222227000129593&wl0=&wl1=g&wl2=c&wl3=40331780912&wl4=aud-273067695542:pla-78293857232&wl5=9023814&wl6=&wl7=&wl8=&wl9=pla&wl10=8175035&wl11=online&wl12=11993395&wl13=&veh=sem
Kettlebell $40-$100 http://www.roguefitness.com/rogue-kettlebells

 

Needed Equipment Notes:

-For the power rack, I went with the Texas Strength Systems power rack. It is absolutely great, but for anyone else I would recommend going with the comparable Rogue power rack. The Rogue power rack has a slightly higher sticker price, but after shipping they are about even. The real reason to go with Rogue though is the shipping time. I do not believe either rack will really be that much better than the other, but it took upwards of 3 months for TSS to finally ship my power rack, where as Rogue can get it there within the week. You will notice a lot of Rogue equipment on here in general, and that is because if you want to save on shipping and get your order quick, go with Rogue on as much as you can.

-You can go with a Texas Power Bar instead of an Ohio Power Bar, which I have both, but I highly recommend the Ohio one. Best bar I have ever used outside of an Eleiko Power Bar.

-Plates aren’t cheap, so just get what you need. I ordered 10x 45lbs. Plates, 2x 25lbs., 4x 10lbs., 2x 5lbs., and 2x 2.5lbs. If you get the loadable dumbbell handles from recommended section, you may need to order more of the smaller sized plates so that you can load two dumbbells as the same time.

-If there is one thing you do, make sure to go with walmart.com for the plates. The biggest cost is shipping, and Walmart offers FREE shipping. Same exact plates that Texas Strength Systems has, except half the cost.

-OSO Barbell collars are must for deadlifting with steel plates. With those collars the plates won’t move and have to adjust between every set.

-The platform I made is 8×8, and required four 4×8 sheets of plywood and three 4×6 stall mats. I laid two 4×8 sheets of plywood on the floor, with 2 more 4×8 sheets of plywood on top of those, laying the opposite direction. I did not use wood glue as some do, just screws, as I plan to move soon and want to be able to disassemble this. From there, I took two 4×6 stall mats and laid them side by side in the center of the platform, leaving a 1×8 strips on each side that I had to trim the final stall mat to make pieces that fit. Screwed the stall mat into the plywood and I was good to go. Also, with a power rack that does not include a place to rack the weights, make sure to anchor it through the platform into the floor.

-I put a deadlift jack as a must because I tried to go without it for a month, and my back was killing me. It’s not fun loading steel plates without a deadlift jack.

Recommended Equipment Notes:

-Saves a lot of money going with loadable dumbbell handles versus individual. Not optimal, but it works.

-If you have anything other than a barbell that will need collars, get some proloc collars as well. Even though I love the OSO collars, they do not fit on everything. The proloc collars though fit on pretty much everything, specifically the loadable dumbbell handles and the safety bar I have.

Other Additions Notes:

-With all of these items, none are needed, but are items I have bought that are beneficial. If I had to pick my top 3 out of these that I use, it would be the rings, safety bar, and bulgarian split squat stand.

Post-Meet Rest Week? Why You Should Take A Break

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Post-Meet Rest Week? Why You Should Take A Break

So what is on the training plan for Adam this week after his 1620lb. performance last week? Exactly what you see here…..rest. This doesn’t seem to be a commonly held belief, but barring a quick turnover for another meet, I have all my athletes take the week off following a meet. I have them do this for two reasons:

1.) The body takes a beating through all the training leading into a meet. Weeks upon weeks of hard training creates wear and tear on the joints that just cannot be fully recovered unless you just take a break at some point to allow a decrease in inflammation. While this may be an unpopular belief, the only thing that will suffer is short term progress. In the long term, which is what most of us should be focusing on, a week off is going to pay its dividends years down the road when you are still lifting, healthy, and making progress.

2.) The first reason was physical, but the second reason is mental. Powerlifting can be monotonous. As powerlifters we thrive on motivation and passion. If we never have a chance to “miss” lifting though, this motivation and passion tends to dissipate, and that grind turns into something we have to do versus love to do. I usually find that if people hop right back into training after a meet, they get into a rut and find themselves bored. This is especially true when volume/hypertrophy cycles are usually following a meet and the progression of strength is not the main goal at that time. But give them a week off, and by that next Monday they are begging to get at back at it.

While I won’t argue that this is a make or break choice, I think its definitely wise to give yourself a break after a hard and long training cycle leading up to a meet. You’ll usually find that you feel rejuvenated and ready to go once training resumes, and the following training blocks are more productive because of it.

Try This Squat Cue…

Try This Squat Cue…

So I have been working with a new squat cue that I hadn’t heard before over the past couple weeks that is seeming to work really well, and not just on myself, so it is time to share. “Sit back, chest up” has two major flaws. 1.) It causes people to go into lumbar flexion or anterior pelvic tilt to keep that “chest up” versus maintaining a neutral braced position and 2.) Many times this causes people to try to stay too upright will sitting back, which results in the center of gravity being shifted back too far, and then trying to compensate towards the bottom range of motion to get back over their mid-foot and not lose balance. You will have to lean forward in the squat, you can’t fight that, and just trying to keep the “chest up” many times forces you into positions you shouldn’t be in. The fix I have found is “push your hips back and reach your chest forward”. Since implementing for myself, it has allowed me to take out the 6-7 cues I was using and replace it with just this one. To make more sense of this, pretend there is an imaginary wall at the front of your knees or your mid-foot, whichever registers better as an internal cue for you. What you will try to do is push/sit your hips back while at the same time trying to reach your chest forward to move along that wall all the way down. What results is a more natural and gradual increase in hip flexion through the squat, maintaining the correct center of gravity and positioning throughout. I have to admit this idea came to me while watching @jesse_critter25 squat videos. You can see the video of myself implementing this cue HERE, but if you watch @jesse_critter25 squat, you’ll really see what I mean. He sits back, yet at the same time that chest is staying directly above the mid-foot the entire time and “reaching forward”. Give it a shot and let me know what you think.

A Different Way To Look At “Speed Work”

A Different Way To Look At “Speed Work”

A highly debated topic within powerlifting over the years has been speed training. While some swear by it, others oppose. And what I want to do is propose a new idea of speed training, that really does not include any “speed”. Let me start by noting that this article is meant to be read is my theorizing and application of principles combining into an idea that could possibly hold true and be applied within training. I am not saying these practices are tried and true and you should apply them immediately, but rather I am presenting arguments and theories of a possible new way to look at speed work, and then I plan to put them into practice. Basically this is my ramblings and thoughts, and rather than just store them in my head while testing their application, I am writing them down for myself and also for anyone else who may want to test their validity. And I 100% encourage counter arguments against my proposed theories, as I would love to hear rebuttals to what I have to say. Since these are just ideas and theories, the more constructive feedback I can get, the more I can turn these into sound principles.

Let’s first take a look at how and where I formulated my views on speed work and power within powerlifting from. While speed work is highly debated, the argument on whether powerlifting is actually a “power” sport should not be. There is very little power application actually within powerlifting competition, and on the scale of power to strength, testing your 1 rep max on the platform is about as close to the strength side as it gets. With that being said, I will not say that the application of power cannot be used within powerlifting though, I am just going to propose what I believe is a new way of looking at it. In my opinion, speed work is not the correct way to term the training we should do to increase power within powerlifting, but rather should be looked at as “acceleration work”. The reason I believe this, is that with a true 1 RM or sets taken close to failure, “speed” and “explosive” is usually the last thing to describe what that lift looks like. If speed and power, as seen and applied in olympic lifting, were vital within powerlifting then you would not have people like Layne Norton setting squat world records while having a squat that at even submaximal weights looks slow. Grinding out a rep is everything power is not, and instead is the work of our muscular strength pushing through to help us complete the repetition.

Let’s look into the advice and teachings of Boris Sheiko, an esteemed and legendary powerlifting coach from Russia, who is entrenched in a land of power movements. In my opinion, if there is someone who would know if power is relevant within powerlifting, it would be him, as he grew up in an era and country that founded the principles of power that we have today and led to the popular Westside dynamic effort methods. Summarizing the comments of CJ Murphy that he shared in an Elite FTS article in regards to what he learned at a Boris Sheiko seminar (1), he stated that he was a bit perplexed by Sheiko’s comments in regards to rate of force production. Unlike the Westside principles that he had been taught, CJ heard from Boris that his recommendation was to not “explode”, but to go “fast” under control. Where speed training seems to teach a ballistic effort to move the bar as fast as you can, Sheiko took more of a controlled acceleration approach. And you can see this in his lifters. If you have ever watched Sergey Fedosienko lift (one of Sheiko’s clients), his lifts are fast, but the odd thing is that the speed of his lifts look about darn near the same whether it is with submaximal weight or 1 RM loads. They always look under control and fast, but I wouldn’t describe it as explosive, grinding, or shaky at any point. As CJ stated, Boris’s approach is that the lift within the eccentric to concentric is like a metronome, and Fedosienko’s lifts definitely fit into this category.

One piece of analytical and perceptual evidence that I believe also gives good insight into speed and power within powerlifting is taking a look at Westside lifters vs. Sheiko clients/sub-maximal powerlifting advocates. A theory that can be 100% agreed on in powerlifting is that specificity is key. I will expand that to include that your ability to grind through a 1 rep max is also based on the specificity of the absolute and relative intensity of your training. If you watch Westside lifters, they are usually pretty good at grinding through 1 rep maxes, and that’s because they train with high absolute and relative intensities on a weekly basis. The same could be said with those who train with amraps on a consistent basis and are taking sets to a high level of relative intensity. When you are consistently training at those thresholds, your ability to grind through heavy weight increases. While I believe someone who follows the Westside principles may argue that their speed work allows them to “speed” through heavy weight, I would argue that their specificity of consistently heavy loads is the reason they are so good at it. On the opposite end, Sheiko clients and others who are proponents of sub-maximal training usually tend to make their 1 RMs look somewhat effortless. It is not to say that they couldn’t grind or do not grind at times, but more likely than not they will not be as skilled in the act of grinding through a maximal rep due to their submaximal training and specificity. My argument is not that one is better than the other (high relative/absolute intensities vs. sub-maximal training), but rather that through the analytical and perceptual evidence I have gathered, that speed work does not seem to translate to the “speed” people seem to desire. And if this is the case, “speed work” in relation to powerlifting does not make much sense, as those who are proposing speed work are those tending to grind through 1 RMs, and those opposing speed work are the ones that are seemingly “smoking” their 3rd attempts in competition. There is obviously more variables that could go into this particular argument, and not every Westside lifter is grinding through reps and not every Sheiko client is smoking 3rd attempts. But I do believe there is some validity to what I have stated.

So with the foundation laid on why I believe the speed work that has typically been done is not optimal in its translation to powerlifting competition, let’s take a look at what I am proposing with “acceleration work”. Continuing with the advice and theories of Boris Sheiko, included in Charles Poliquin’s “Five things I learned from Boris Sheiko” post on his website (2), he stated that Sheiko taught that in particular with the bench press, that the faster the acceleration was, the higher the sticking point would be. And that the higher the sticking point was in the concentric phase, the easier it was to push through that sticking point.

So how do we improve our acceleration…….pause work. There are multiple benefits of pause work:

  1. Improved ability to strengthen and brace in the paused positions, leading to increased stability in that range. Most likely with bench and squat that would be the bottom position.
  2. With squats, it helps to increase the neurological awareness of where “depth” is if we are pausing at the bottom position.
  3. Less reliance on the stretch reflex, which can help improve our recovery abilities during a misgroove.
  4. Acceleration from that position. In a situation where we would typically rely on the stretch reflex to propel us, we now have to produce that acceleration voluntarily from that position. This could also be a discussion of working on your maximal strength, versus relying on other factors and using your absolute strength.

The main focus here will be number 4, with pause work directly helping with our acceleration. Now that is nothing new. A simple google search of “pause squat for acceleration” brings up multiple articles from highly credible sources on how pause work in the squat, bench, and deadlift can lead to improvements in acceleration. Where I feel my proposal is different is that I am stating that this can be substitute for the traditional “speed work” that has been used in powerlifting for years. Rather than just prescribing pause variations within a training program, it can be used as a foundational principle within training to improve bar acceleration in our lifts, termed “acceleration work”. An easy way to see the difference between someone who consistently practices pause work vs. does not is to watch the sticking point of a powerlifter who trains touch and go bench press far too often leading into competition. Once they compete and have to pause, that sticking point hits them hard right off the chest. They relied on the momentum of the stretch reflex to help propel them off the chest, and when they can no longer do that, their true acceleration shows through. I can see the argument then that we have to pause in competition for bench press, but not for squat, so where would the benefit of “acceleration work” come in for squat? I would then go back to the fact that pause work within a squat will help to improve our maximal strength and acceleration from that position without other factors at play, specifically our ability of stretch reflex to create acceleration. When looking at acceleration, the amount of time I would say we truly are accelerating during the squat, bench and deadlift during a maximal lift is very, very small. While I did not find conclusive research regarding this, it seemed that the initial acceleration period would be around .1-.2 seconds during a maximal lift, and after that we are usually decelerating at least until we break through our sticking point, with another very slight acceleration period after that. So to say that we need to worry about speed throughout the entire movement in my opinion is false. Rather, we just need to worry about the few milliseconds that we need to accelerate from the bottom position and possibly through the sticking point, then after that strength is the dominant factor of the movement. And that is where pause work has its benefits.

“Acceleration work” through paused repetitions versus speed work also has the benefit of the ability to use heavier loads. In the controversial article “Why Speed Work Doesn’t Work”, Mike Tuscherer made the point that if done correctly, speed work is using such light weights that the technique and motor unit requirements do not have the carry over to sport practice that is needed.(3) When we are under a heavier load, there is going to be a different level of bracing and motor unit recruitment needed. But with the idea of “acceleration work”, we can still fulfill that ability of using loads in the 70-85% range on a regular basis, and up to circa max or maximal loads if desired to fulfill that need for technique practice that can translate to the platform.

So if pause work can now be used as a foundational principle for “acceleration work”, what movements would be beneficial within a powerlifting training program to supplement as variations to our competition lifts? For squat, there are three main variations that reduce or eliminate the stretch reflex, and then within those three variations we have multiple options as well. For the three variations, this would include pause squats, pin squats (or also known as anderson squats), and tempo squats. With the pause and pin squats, we can change these variations in regards to where we place the pause. Typically the most popular points will be at the bottom position of the squat, making sure that we are not resting on the hamstrings, but rather still in an actively contracted and tight position where the hip crease is just below knee level. The other point being just above parallel, as that is many times where the sticking point of a squat for low bar squatters in particular is located. I included tempo squats as well, as even though they still have a small reliance on the stretch reflex process, due to the elongated eccentric, the benefit from the stretch reflex is reduced and could therefore have some benefit in regards to acceleration as well.

In regards to bench press, the variation options are very similar to squat. The one big difference though is that the bench press actually has to be paused in competition, so now there is even more of a reason for us to train with pause work. Even if there is disagreement on the concept of “acceleration work”, I still believe for powerlifting specificity that we should use a pause on all bench movements on anything 6 reps or less. Anything over 6 reps I would let someone decide themselves what they prefer, as we probably are all well aware the difficulty of trying to breath correctly on an 8 to 10 rep paused bench set. Back to the discussion of variations though, with bench if we are pausing with most or all of our movements, that will be our primary “acceleration work”. From there we have some options of pin press, spoto press, and block presses the work through different ranges of motions and sticking points depending on our needs. Also, the same as with squat, tempo bench press could be an option as well due to its decreased reliance on the stretch reflex.

As for the deadlift, it is already a concentric only movement when performed correctly in competition standards (dead stop, not touch and go). Even so, there are still some things we can do variation wise that directly improve our acceleration in regards to implementing pause work. We can implement a pause at certain points during the movements, usually at a sticking point, to increase our acceleration from that position. Typically with pause deadlifts, these pauses are inserted either right when the bar breaks the floor, or as the bar ascends to just below the knees. The other way we can train this is through reset reps when we are performing deadlift for multiple repetitions. Reset reps call for after each repetition that we step away from the bar and reset. Even with dead stop deadlifts, there is still some build up of the stretch reflex that helps us advantageously during the next repetition, so doing a full reset fully relieves us of that built on tension.

Lastly we need to look at how we could program this “acceleration work” into our training protocols. In regards to the Westside/conjugate method, I do not want to do the disservice of trying to rework that program to plug in an “acceleration day” over the dynamic effort day, as that would entirely change the protocol they have set up, and most likely would not allow for adequate recovery. But with some other popular programs, I see some wiggle room to work this in.

In the popular DUP protocol, if we are looking that the original setup of Hypertrophy – Power – Strength setup, we can easily plug this “acceleration work” into the power day. As it stands, the power day currently within the DUP system is really just a lighter relative intensity and lower volume recovery day in prep for the heavier strength day later in the week. To not mess up the recovery protocols in place, we could still shoot for lower relative intensities and lower volumes on this day to allow CNS fatigue to dissipate, but emphasize pause work variations on this day to train our acceleration. This pause work would also allow us to use relatively lighter loads in relation to competition lifts to achieve the same relative intensities, so it plays a second role in allowing for some additional recovery.

As for more standard western periodization strategies, the “acceleration work” could be added in through variations picked to supplement the competition lifts, as is typically done, especially further away from a meet. Pause work is already a very popular variation in many programs, but just the idea of using it as “acceleration work” will be a bit of a different way to approaching it. If lifts are typically done in a 2 day a week frequency, “acceleration work” could be used on one of those days, and competition lifts on the other. If competition lifts are performed both days, then “acceleration work” can be used to fit in afterwards as supplemental volume and variation to complement the previous competition movements.

One thing to be determined is the individual need for “acceleration work”, and how much that will actually benefit each individual in their pursuit of strength. While this needs to be delved into much deeper, I think some type of test could be modified from the strength deficit theories presented in the book “Supertraining”. To summarize, Verkhoshansky advises a jump test to determine someone’s strength deficit, with which we can determine their strength to power ratio, in sense. You have them perform two standing jumps, one from a static start and the other preceeded by a slight dip. The jump with a slight dip should be higher as we can rely on the stretch reflex, but the strength deficit is the difference between the two. In regards to athletes, the larger that deficit, the more their programs should feature power based movements, and the smaller the deficit, the more hypertrophy and strength based movements should be prioritized. (4) While I have no idea the exact numbers, I am sure some type of ratio of pause to non-paused squat/bench/deadlift could be developed to determine someone’s acceleration ability in regards to their maximal strength. The calculation would be simple, as it would be something such as your pause squat 1RM or estimated 1RM divided by your competition squat 1RM. This would give us a percentage that would then translate into our “acceleration deficit”. If there was some type of controlled experiment or analysis of a wide array of lifters, I am sure some type of definitive ratio could be developed to determine the need requirements for “acceleration work” based on someone’s deficit. And just like Verkhoshanksy’s method, the larger the deficit the more “acceleration work” that would be needed, and the smaller the deficit the more general strength and hypertrophy would be prioritized.

In regards to this whole article, I know I am reaching here to an extent, but a reminder that this is my ramblings, thoughts, and theories on this subject, not my solidified recommendations. Piecing the information together I have researched, these are some of the thoughts and conclusions I came to, and plan to experiment with these ideas in application to determine their validity and performance benefits. There are always many variables at play in regards to why a program works, so even if adding “acceleration work” to someone’s program increases their total on the platform, it will also not mean all that I have theorized is valid. It will just be another tool in the arsenal in the pursuit of strength that will hopefully pan out into something. As mentioned before, please give me feedback, in agreement or countering, as I’d love to get a discussion going on other’s views in regards to this subject and where I may be onto something or where I may be reaching.

  1. https://www.elitefts.com/coaching-logs/my-weekend-with-boris-sheiko/
  2. http://www.strengthsensei.com/boris-sheiko-5-things-learned/
  3. http://www.jtsstrength.com/articles/2013/03/25/why-speed-work-doesnt-work/
  4. Verkhoshansky, Yuri, and Mel Cunningham. Siff. Supertraining. Rome, Italy: Verkhoshansky, 2009. Print.